Skip to Main Content

Data and Statistics Guide

General Rules

Some databases provide citations for each statistical table or dataset included, and many data providers give general guidelines. Style manuals also have sections on how to cite data and statistics.

In general, you need to provide the following information when you cite data:

  • Author

  • Title

  • Date

  • Edition or Version

  • Publisher

  • Persistent Identifier (DOI, URL)

The order of these elements may change, depending on what citation style is used. Often, the format description (data file, database, etc.) should also be included.

Note: The citations generated by library databases may not be 100% correct. Check with your professor, a librarian, or the appropriate citation guide to make sure you cite correctly.

Citing - APA

Reference Example:

Milberger, S. (2002). Evaluation of violence against women with physical disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001 (ICPSR version) [data file and codebook]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414

Source: MSU Libraries

If there is no DOI, replace with "Retrieved from" the URL that links to the data.

Citing - MLA

Reference Example:

Milberger, Sharon. Evaluation of Violence Against Women With Physical Disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001. ICPSR version. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research, 2002. Web. 19 May 2011.

Source: MSU Libraries

If the web link is included, then the date of access should also be listed.

Citing Data Links