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Citations allow you to:
Any time you write something that did not 100% come from your own brain, or that does not constitute common knowledge, you need to cite where you got the information. This means you will include a citation anytime you use some else's words or idea in your own work. Including:
You do not need to document:
If you are not sure, it is better to over-cite than under-cite.
Direct Citations mentioning the source
John Fontana and Elizabeth Montalbano (2008) point out, “the market for these low-cost machines is being driven by inexpensive bandwidth; the growth of services and cloud computing; and cloud-based processing, storage, management and associated IT services”(p. 12).
Direct Citations not mentioning the source
They stated, "The market for these low-cost machines is being driven by inexpensive bandwidth; the growth of services and cloud computing; and cloud-based processing, storage, management, and associated IT services” (Fontana & Montalbano, 2008, p. 12).
Any direct quotation over 40 words need to be put in a free-standing block that is indented 1/2 inch. This text block will still be double-spaced but does not include any additional spacing above or below the text block. See Purdue OWL for an example.
Paraphrase mentioning Source
John Fontana and Elizabeth Montalbano (2008) note that low-priced Netbooks are gaining share because of the relatively cheap Internet access capable of downloading large files; the wealth of Internet-based applications; and the ability for files to be created, produced, stored, and administered on the Internet hosted sites.
Paraphrase not mentioning Source
Low priced Netbooks are gaining market share because of relatively cheap Internet access capable of downloading large files; the wealth of Internet-based applications; and the ability for files to be created, produced, stored, and administered on Internet hosted sites (Fontana & Montalbano, 2008).
Book (1 author):
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
Book Chapter (1 author):
Shearer, R. (2007). Instructional design and the technologies: An overview. In M. G. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of distance education (2nd ed.). (pp. 219-232). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Print Journal Article (1 author):
DeTure, M. (2004). Cognitive style and self-efficacy: Predicting student success in online distance education. The American Journal of Distance Education, 18(1), 21-38.
Print Journal Article (2 authors):
Curtis, D. D., & Lawson, M. J. (2001). Exploring collaborative online learning. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5(1), 21-34.
Electronic Journal Article (1 author):
Verdugo, R. R. (2011). The heavens may fall: School dropouts, the achievement gap, and statistical bias. Education and Urban Society, 43(2), 184-204. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013124510379875
Electronic Journal Article (2 authors):
Pray, L., & Ilieva, V. (2011). Strategies for success: Links to increased mathematics achievement scores of English-Language learners. Teacher Education and Practice, 24(1), 30-45. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ917657
Online Newspaper Article
Brody, J.E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brains agile. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11iht-11brod.8685746.html
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (2019, November 21). Justice served: Case closed for over 40 dogfighting victims. https://www.aspca.org/news/justice-served-case-closed-over-40-dogfighting-victims
Article/Blog Post From A Website
Fister, B. (2012, August 20). The library vanishes - again. Inside Higher Ed. http://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/library-babel-fish/library-vanishes-again