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Communication 300.6

Persuasive Communication Research Guide

Why We Cite

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Citations allow you to:

  • Enable your readers to find further information on your topic
  • Build the authority of your argument with ideas from numerous sources
  • Be a responsible researcher and avoid plagiarism 

What Needs to be Cited

Any time you write something that did not 100% come from your own brain, or that does not constitute common knowledge, you need to cite where you got the information. This means you will include a citation anytime you use some else's words or idea in your own work. Including:

  • Direct quotes -- full sentences or phrases expressing an idea
  • Paraphrases -- when you put someone's ideas into your own words (do not use quotation marks)
  • Words or terminology specifically related to the author's ideas
  • An author's line of argument or point of view
  • Historical, statistical, or scientific facts. 
  • Graphs, drawings, or images. 

You do not need to document:

  • Proverbs, axioms, or well know phrases. 
  • Common knowledge

If you are not sure, it is better to over-cite than under-cite. 

APA Style

APA resources

In-Text Citations

Direct Citations mentioning the source

John Fontana and Elizabeth Montalbano (2008) point out, “the market for these low-cost machines is being driven by inexpensive bandwidth; the growth of services and cloud computing; and cloud-based processing, storage, management and associated IT services”(p. 12).

  • Note that the year of the publication is included right after the author. The page number is indicated in parentheses directly after the quotation.

Direct Citations not mentioning the source

They stated, "The market for these low-cost machines is being driven by inexpensive bandwidth; the growth of services and cloud computing; and cloud-based processing, storage, management, and associated IT services” (Fontana & Montalbano, 2008, p. 12).

  • Note you only include the last name of the authors, separated by an ampersand (&). The author, date, and page are separated by commas. The parentheses directly follow the quotation.

Long Quotation

Any direct quotation over 40 words need to be put in a free-standing block that is indented 1/2 inch. This text block will still be double-spaced but does not include any additional spacing above or below the text block. See Purdue OWL for an example.

Paraphrase mentioning Source

John Fontana and Elizabeth Montalbano (2008) note that low-priced Netbooks are gaining share because of the relatively cheap Internet access capable of downloading large files; the wealth of Internet-based applications; and the ability for files to be created, produced, stored, and administered on the Internet hosted sites.

  • Note that you do not need to include the page number for a paraphrase, though you CAN if it would help your reader find the information in a longer work. 

Paraphrase not mentioning Source

Low priced Netbooks are gaining market share because of relatively cheap Internet access capable of downloading large files; the wealth of Internet-based applications; and the ability for files to be created, produced, stored, and administered on Internet hosted sites (Fontana & Montalbano, 2008).

  • Anytime you use an idea from a source, you need to quote that source like a paraphrase with the relevant statement(s). 

Reference List

 

Book (1 author):

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.

Book Chapter (1 author):

Shearer, R. (2007). Instructional design and the technologies: An overview. In M. G.  Moore (Ed.), Handbook of distance education (2nd ed.). (pp. 219-232).  Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Print Journal Article (1 author):

DeTure, M. (2004). Cognitive style and self-efficacy: Predicting student success in online distance education. The American Journal of Distance Education, 18(1), 21-38.

Print Journal Article (2 authors):

Curtis, D.  D., & Lawson, M.  J. (2001). Exploring collaborative online learning. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5(1), 21-34.

Electronic Journal Article (1 author):

Verdugo, R. R. (2011). The heavens may fall: School dropouts, the achievement gap, and statistical bias. Education and Urban Society43(2),  184-204. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013124510379875

Electronic Journal Article (2 authors):

Pray, L., & Ilieva, V. (2011). Strategies for success: Links to increased mathematics achievement scores of English-Language learners. Teacher  Education and Practice24(1), 30-45. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ917657

  • Note if the DOI is not available provide the Permalink URL. 

Online Newspaper Article

Brody, J.E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brains agile. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11iht-11brod.8685746.html   

Website

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (2019, November 21). Justice served: Case closed for over 40 dogfighting victimshttps://www.aspca.org/news/justice-served-case-closed-over-40-dogfighting-victims

Article/Blog Post From A Website

Fister, B. (2012, August 20). The library vanishes - again. Inside Higher Ed. http://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/library-babel-fish/library-vanishes-again