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APA Citation Style

For more information:

REMEMBER: Your Professor is the final authority on citation style. ASK him or her if you're unsure.

In-text citation examples (Direct Quote):

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).


She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

In-text citation examples (Paraphrase):

According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.


APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

*APA doesn't require a page number when a source is paraphrased, but it is strongly encouraged.

APA Quick Tips

Book (1 author):

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman

and Company.

Book Chapter (1 author):

Shearer, R. (2007). Instructional design and the technologies: An overview. In M. G.

Moore (Ed.), Handbook of distance education (2nd ed.). (pp. 219-232).

Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

*For more information about books (multiple authors, multiple chapter authors, etc.), please click here

Print Journal Article (1 author):

DeTure, M. (2004). Cognitive style and self-efficacy: Predicting student success in

online distance education. The American Journal of Distance Education, 18(1), 21-38.

Print Journal Article (2 authors):

Curtis, D.  D., & Lawson, M.  J.  (2001).  Exploring collaborative online learning. 

Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5(1), 21 - 34.

Electronic Journal Article (1 author):

Verdugo, R. R. (2011). The heavens may fall: School dropouts, the achievement

gap, and statistical bias. Education and Urban Society, 43(2),

184-204. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Electronic Journal Article (2 author):

Pray, L., & Ilieva, V. (2011). Strategies for success: Links to increased mathematics

achievement scores of English-Language learners. Teacher

Education and Practice, 24(1), 30-45. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

*For more information about articles (including those from non-scholarly resources such as newspapers), please click here

Online Newspaper Article

Brody, J.E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. 

           Retrieved from


Huffington, A. (2012). Huffington post. Retrieved 30, August,


Article/Blog Post From A Website

Fister, B. (2012). The library vanishes - again. Retrieved August 30, 2012,