Nature Climate Change is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing the most significant and cutting-edge research on the science of climate change, its impacts and wider implications for the economy, society and policy.
Abstract: a concise summary of a study
Article: a primary source reporting the results of a study
Review: a synthesis and analysis of peer-reviewed articles all pertaining to the same topic. Also called Literarure Review, these are extremely important sources when starting out on a topic. A good review will effectively lay out the state of knowledge on a topic and describe the seminal works in the topic.
Book Review: a review of a scholarly book, not the same thing as a literature review.
Conference Proceeding: an article (or sometimes just the abstract) that is the essential text of a paper that was presented at a scholarly conference. Papers presented at scholarly conferences are considered peer-reviewed.
Government Document: a monograph, article, map, survey, hearing, etc. produced as a consequence of the activity of a division of the federal or state government. Produced by professionals in the field, these are not technically peer-reviewed but are authoritative due to the nature of the publication.
Magazine: a publication issued for profit aimed at a popular audience. It will contain contain advertising and an editorial point of view. Articles are written by journalists and some journalists or writers are considered very authoritative.
Newspaper Article: topical coverage of an issue or event written for a general audience by journalists. Some newspapers and journalists are very prestigious. Newspaper articles are helpful to get an "on the ground" view of an event or issue.